Medicine


Healing (literally meaning to make whole[1]) is the process of the restoration of health to an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism. Healing may be physical or psychological and not without the mutual reception of these two dimensions of human health. With respect to physical damage or disease suffered by an organism, healing involves the repair of living tissue, organs and the biological system as a whole and resumption of normal functioning. It is the process by which the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area and replace it with new living tissue. The replacement can happen in two ways: by regeneration in which the necrotic cells are replaced by new cells that form similar tissue as was originally there; or by repair in which injured tissue is replaced with scar tissue. Most organs will heal using a mixture of both mechanisms. In Psychiatry and Psychology, healing is the process by which neuroses and psychoses are resolved to the degree that the client is able to lead a normal or fulfilling existence without being overwhelmed by psychopathological phenomena. This process may involve psychotherapy, pharmaceutical treatment and increasingly traditional spiritual approaches. In order for an injury to be healed by regeneration, the cell type that was destroyed must be able to replicate. Cells also need a collagen framework along w

ich to grow. Alongside most cells there is either a basement membrane or a collagenous network made by fibroblasts that will guide the cells' growth. Since ischaemia and most toxins do not destroy collagen, it will continue to exist even when the cells around it are dead. [edit]Example Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in the kidney is a case in which cells heal completely by regeneration.

ATN occurs when the epithelial cells that line the kidney are destroyed by either a lack of oxygen (such as in hypovolemic shock, when blood supply to the kidneys is dramatically reduced), or by toxins (such as some antibiotics, heavy metals or carbon tetrachloride). Although many of these epithelial cells are dead, there is typically patchy necrosis, meaning that there are patches of epithelial cells still alive. In addition, the collagen framework of the tubules remains completely intact. The existing epithelial cells can replicate, and, using the basement membrane as a guide, eventually bring the kidney back to normal. After regeneration is complete, the damage is undetectable, even microscopically. Healing must happen by repair in the case of injury to cells that are unable to regenerate (e.g. cardiac muscle or neurons). Also, damage to the collagen network (e.g. by enzymes or physical destruction), or its total collapse (as can happen in an infarct) cause healing to take place by repair.