All medical practitioners


Among the English-speaking countries, this process is known either as licensure as in the United States, or as registration in the United Kingdom, other Commonwealth countries, and Ireland. Synonyms in use elsewhere include colegiacion in Spain, ishi menkyo in Japan, autorisasjon in Norway, Approbation in Germany, and "? " in Greece. In France, Italy and Portugal, civilian physicians must be members of the Order of Physicians to practice medicine. In some countries, including the United Kingdom and Ireland, the profession largely regulates itself, with the government affirming the regulating body's authority. The best known example of this is probably the General Medical Council of Britain. In all countries, the regulating authorities will revoke permission to practice in cases of malpractice or serious misconduct. In the large English-speaking federations (United States, Canada, Australia), the licensing or registration of medical practitioners is done at a state or provincial level or nationally as in New Zealand. Australian states usually have a "Medical Board" which has now been replaced by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulatory Authority (AHPRA) in most states, while Canadian provinces usually have a "College of Physicians and Surgeons." All American states have an agency which is usually called the "Medical Board", although there are alternate names such as "Board of Medicine," "Board of Medical Examiners", "Board of Medical Licensure", "Board of Healing Arts" or some other variation.[30] After graduating from a first-professional school, physicians who wish to practice in the U.S. usually take standardized exams, such as the USMLE for MDs and DOs or the COMLEX-USA for DOs, which is not available to MDs (although most DOs in the U.S. also take the USMLE exams and undergo the same residency training as MDs). Specialists in intern l medicine Most countries have some method of officially recognizing specialist qualifications in all branches of medicine, including internal medicine. Sometimes, this aims to promote public safety by restricting the use of hazardous treatments. Other reasons for regulating specialists may include standardization of recognition for hospital employment and restriction on which practitioners are entitled to receive higher insurance payments for specialist services. Performance and professionalism supervision The issue of medical errors, drug abuse, and other issues in physician professional behavior received significant attention across the world,[31] particularly following a critical 2000 report[32] which "arguably launched" the patient-safety movement.[33] In the U.S., as of 2006 there were few organizations which systematically monitored performance. In the U.S. only the Department of Veterans Affairs randomly drug tests, in contrast to drug testing practices for other professions which have a major impact on public welfare. Licensing boards at the U.S. state level depend upon continuing education to maintain competence.[34] Through the utilization of the National Practitioner Data Bank, Healthcare Integrity Protection Databank, Federation of State Medical Boards Disciplinary Report, and American Medical Association Physician Profile Service, the 67 State Medical Boards (MD/DO) continually self-report any Adverse/Disciplinary Actions taken against a licensed Physician in order that the other Medical Boards in which the Physician holds or is applying for a Medical License will be properly notified so that corrective, reciprocal action can be taken against the offending physician.[35] In Europe, as of 2009 the health systems are governed according to various national laws, and can also vary according to regional differences similar to the United States.