Food food science food technology - Food - Main Course

Food, food science, food technology   by CIFT

in Food / Main Course    (submitted 2011-03-15)

Food chemistry is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components of foods. The biological substances include such items as meat, poultry, beer, and milk as examples. It is similar to biochemistry in its main components such as carbohydrates, lipids, and protein, but it also includes areas such as water, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, additives, flavors, and colors.

Food spoilage means the original nutritional value, texture, flavour of the food are damaged, the food become harmful to people and unsuitable to eat.

Microbial spoilage

There are three types of microorganisms that cause food spoilage -- yeasts, moulds and bacteria.

1. Yeasts growth causes fermentation which is the result of yeast metabolism. There are two types of yeasts true yeast and false yeast. True yeast metabolizes sugar producing alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. This is known as fermentation. False yeast grows as a dry film on a food surface, such as on pickle brine. False yeast occurs in foods that have a high sugar or high acid environment.

2. Moulds grow in filaments forming a tough mass which is visible as `mould growth'. Moulds form spores which, when dry, float through the air to find suitable conditions where they can start the growth cycle again.

3. Bacteria are round, rod or spiral shaped microorganisms. Bacteria may grow under a wide variety of conditions. There are many types of bacteria that cause spoilage. They can be divided into: spore-forming and nonspore-forming. Bacteria generally prefer low acid foods like vegetables and meat.

Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food or to transform food into other forms for consumption by humans or animals either in the home or by the food processing industry. Food processing typically takes clean, harvested crops or butchered animal products and uses these to produce attractive, marketable and often long shelf-life food products. Similar processes are used to produce animal feed.

Mass production of food is much cheaper overall than individual production of meals from raw ingredients. Therefore, a large profit potential exists for the manufacturers and suppliers of processed food products. Individuals may see a benefit in convenience, but rarely see any direct financial cost benefit in using processed food as compared to home preparation. More and more people live in the cities far away from where food is grown and produced. In many families the adults are working away from home and therefore there is little time for the preparation of food based on fresh ingredients. Benefits of food processing include toxin removal, preservation, easing marketing and distribution tasks, and increasing food consistency. In addition, it increases seasonal availability of many foods, enables transportation of delicate perishable foods across long distances, and makes many kinds of foods safe to eat by de-activating spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.